Understanding How The Chinese Government Leverages Social Media To Influence Public Policy & Political Opinion Abroad

The following isn’t necessarily an article so much as it is an opportunity for informational download. But, without burying the lead any further, earlier today I managed to come across a new report published by researchers at Recorded Future entitled “Beyond Hybrid War: How China Exploits Social Media to Sway American Opinion,” explaining the subtle differences between how the Chinese Government and Kremlin utilize social media as a means of swaying public opinion abroad. While the report is interesting in its own right, it reminded me of a separate report published by Harvard University in 2017 entitled “How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument” – explaining how the Chinese Government goes as far as to literally employ thousands of employees just to scavenger social media and make pro-China comments on outlets like Facebook and Twitter, solely just to troll news/information painting China in a negative light, or make political policies seem more popular/unpopular than they otherwise would be.

Now, I could write thousands upon thousands of words on this subject here for Rogue Media Labs, but I’m not paid per word or to write articles in general like everyone else in the main stream media. For this reason, I would rather just have you waste your time reading/consuming the actual educational studies for yourself. Happy clicking!

Beyond Hybrid War: How China Exploits Social Media to Sway American Opinion:

Download Full Report Here: https://go.recordedfuture.com/hubfs/reports/cta-2019-0306.pdf

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/China_Manipulation_Social_Media_Public_Opinion_USA.pdf”%5D

How the China Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, not Engaged Argument:

Download Full Report Here: https://gking.harvard.edu/files/gking/files/50c.pdf

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/China_Troll_Farm_Study_Harvard.pdf”%5D

CyberGuerrilla Publishes Part 4 of Integrity Initiative Leaks, Exposing UK Military Operations & Propaganda Campaigns Throughout US & China

Yesterday, January 4th 2019, Anonymous CyberGuerrilla published Part 4 of the Integrity Initiate Leaks, in what appears to be their final release of subject matter. In the leaks provided below, CyberGuerrilla exposes how the Institute for Statecraft was funded by the Foreign Commonwealth Office of the United Kingdom, and publishes hundreds of documents pertaining to targeted propaganda campaigns inside the United States, China, Armenia, Hungary and Moldova. Additionally, you can find dozens of documents pertaining to something known as “Operating Iris,” an initiative coordinated by the UK’s military to observe/document the coverage of active War Zones across social media – ideally hoping to sway or move public opinion on Wars the country is presently engaged in, primarily Syria. The hackers also released various articles and prepared documents on behalf of Jeremy Corbyn, Simon Bracey and Chris Hornen

In a message attached to the hack/release, Anonymous stated:

Greetings! We are Anonymous.

We have warned the UK government that it must conduct an honest and transparent investigation into the activity of the Integrity Initiative and the Institute for Statecraft. Yet, today we can only see some awkward excuses and attempts of the politicians to quieten it all down. The outrageously illicit use of the British taxpayers’ money to organize a smear campaign against Jeremy Corbyn and entire Labour party must not remain unpunished!

To prevent the conservative ministers from lying to the people from the benches of the UK Parliament we have decided to publish another part of the documents that will help make the investigation more honest and open.

You can download all files in a single archive.

Here (42.81 MB): https://anonfiles.com/C937Uboab3/Integrity_Initiative_Part_4_rar
Here (40.8 MB): https://uploadfiles.io/zw3u8

Jeremy Corbyn’s Supporters Would Find These Documents Valuable:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/corbyn-paper-for-populism-20.pdf”%5D

February 2018. Chris Donnelly showed the slide deck to Simon Bracey-Lane, Charlie Hatton, Stephen Dalziel, Ben Robinson, Greg Rowett, Guy Spindler, Chris Hernon and said that, courtesy of a certain Alex, he invited its author Prof. Glen O’Hara to speak before the Integrity Initiative staff members at the Institute for Statecraft.

That’s what the man who used the British taxpayers’ money to smear the leader of Her Majesty’s Most Loyal Opposition on Twitter looks like. Meet Chris Hernon.

Chris Hornen Docs:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/combine1.pdf”%5D

Simon Bracey Doc’s:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/bracy.pdf”%5D

Here’s Proof They Received Money from The FCO:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/fcoall.pdf”%5D

Some more details about payments under the Integrity Initiative project: https://anonfiles.com/Obf5B3p6bd/Payslips_Jul_2018_pdf

Coordinated Smear of Russia Today:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/rtall.pdf”%5D

Download Notepad with contacts of ‘proper’ journalists: https://anonfiles.com/N13dU2o4ba/nationbuilder-people-export-3-2018-06-29_csv

Correction of Journalists:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/correctionofjournalists.pdf”%5D

Integrity Initiative Activity In Armenia:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Armenia.pdf”%5D

Integrity Initiative Activity In China:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/China.pdf”%5D

Integrity Initiative Activity In The US:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/United_States.pdf”%5D

Integrity Initiative Activity In Moldova:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Moldova.pdf”%5D

Integrity Initiative Activity In Hungary:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Hungary.pdf”%5D

Since some experts have noticed that the Integrity Initiative and the Institute for Statecraft are involved in the Skripal case, we believe it’s prudent to publish additional documents that may help the activists get down to the bottom of it.

Early 2015. Victor Madeira of the Institute for Statecraft makes some proposals on the sanctions against Russia. On top of everything else he suggests that Operation FOOT (1971) be repeated again.

Sanctions Against The Russian Federation:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/sanctions-and-the-russian-federation.pdf”%5D

April 2015. Donnelly is promoted to the rank of Honorary Colonel of SGMI (Specialist Group Military Intelligence) de facto becoming its shadow supervisor with responsibilities for recruiting.

Form of recommendation for the appointment: https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/12/28/20150401oafe20031-honcolregionalunit-form/20150401oafe20031-honcolregionalunit-form.pdf

October 2016. Chris Donnelly meets general Barrons. Following the meeting, they judge the UK combat readiness in the face of the Russian threat as catastrophically poor and draw a conclusion:

Here is the document (we have previously published it):

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/richard-barrons-oct-2016.pdf”%5D

After that Donnelly recruits to SGMI a specialist on chemical and biological weapons from Porton Down. Mark Andrew Laverick | Lt Col | COS & SO1 Technical Intelligence | Specialist Group Military Intelligence, 1 ISR Brigade | Building 7A, Denison Bks, HERMITAGE, Thatcham, Berks, RG18 9TP | T: +44(0)7964902082, e-mail: m.laverick@epistem.co.uk, 846laver@armymail.mod.uk

His LinkdIn Profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/mark-laverick-50129020

March 2018. Skripal is Novichoked.

From that moment on the Integrity Initiative becomes actively engaged in the informational operation on the Skripals. It commissions Harod Associates to examine mainstream and social media, code naming the report ‘Operation Iris’.

Operation Iris Doc’s Part 1:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/op_iris.pdf”%5D

Operation Iris Doc’s Part 2:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/op_iris_pt2.pdf”%5D

After that on April 14, 2018 the FCO chief propaganda man Andy Pryce sends a letter to every engaged person containing recommendations on the informational coverage of Salisbury and Syria.

Andy Pryce’s letter:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/salisbury-and-syria-8.pdf”%5D

As a result Russian spies are expelled from the European countries and new sanctions are introduced against Moscow. Madeira’s plan of 13 January 2015 has got consistently implemented by mid-2018.

Nevertheless, he continues his informational activity:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/rus_spies.pdf”%5D

After that Dan Kaszeta of the Institute for Statecraft writes contracted articles and sets himself as the chemical weapons expert.

Invoices for the articles:

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/chemical.pdf”%5D

July 2018. Pablo Miller, a recruiter and at the same time a neigbour of Sergei Skripal, goes to a private meeting with the White Helmets at the Institute for Statecraft. October 2018. Miller’s fellow officer from the 4th Royal Tank Regiment Mark Urban publishes a book containing an interview with Skripal that he by pure chance managed to obtain half a year before the ‘poisoning’.

Here is the document (we have previously published it): https://www.pdf-archive.com/2018/12/28/cnd-gen-list-2/cnd-gen-list-2.pdf

The conclusion is obvious. You can draw it on your own.

We are Anonymous.

We are legion.

We do not forgive.

We do not forget.

Expect us.

Download Parts 1-3 of the Integrity Initiative Leaks Here: https://roguemedia.co/2018/12/20/scribd-took-down-all-leaked-integrity-initiative-documents-so-cyberguerrilla-consolidated-them-all-in-one-place/

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Satirical: FSB/Kremlin Prepared to Declassify All Documents Corresponding To 2016 Election Hacking Campaign

** WARNING: This article is a Satire. I know this is a “big word” for my American viewing audience, so to specify, the definition of a satire “is the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people’s stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.” Understand now? Didn’t think so. **

By now I think more and more people are starting to come to the realization/understanding that I have access to a lot of information that others do not, and have perhaps seen more than my fair share of things I shouldn’t have over the years. Not only do I remain one of Anonymous largest supporters, but dating back to 2015 I literally wrote the book(s) on how to remain/keep an Anonymous identity online. But on through today people look at my website and Twitter feed and ask, “how is it possible for one person to source so much content on a daily basis? How do you do it” they wonder?

Well, if you must know, I presided as contents specialist over one of the biggest “Russian Propaganda” outlets in the world from mid 2015 to November 2016 – at least according to the Washington Post and US liberal media, that is. If you didn’t pick up on it right away, this was also the exact same time period of the EU elections and US Presidential campaign season directly leading up to the month and year of Donald Trumps election – but that’s all just a coincidence, I think. Years after the fact, not only did my Government flag my work and the work I sourced to others as “Fake News,” but it has also been “Blacklisted” and banned from Google and Facebook as propaganda. Quite ironic that I have since gotten 4 different domains accepted for inclusion into Google News and 3 different pages verified by Facebook over the exact same period they were blacklisting all my previous work – don’t you think?

But without making this about myself, one of the most interesting pieces of “information” I’ve ever come across in all my years online was the alleged dirt that “the Russians” were holding over Donald Trumps head. To be more exact, back in 2013, well before Donald Trump ever became President, he traveled to Moscow for the Miss Universe Pageant. As the story goes, one night that Donald Trump returned to his hotel room he was sent a “gift” – a gift of the flesh; a prostitute. However, what Donald Trump did not know at the time was that this prostitute was deliberately underage, and given that everything in Russia has been ‘wiretapped‘ dating back to the KGB days of the Cold War, the Russians have been holding this over Donald Trumps head as “Blackmail” ever since.

Consequentially enough, this is the real reason why Donald Trump has refused to sign US Congressional sanctions against Russia into law, the reason why Jared Kushner has tried to outsource so much business to Russia over the years, as well as why Donald Trump has been an apologist for Vladimir Putin since first taking office – “allegedly.” I also call this ‘alleged information‘ for a reason, because as the saying goes, “there is a difference between facts and information” and if I was ever actually able to prove any of this, Donald Trump would either resign or be impeached, and I would either be winning a Pulitzer prize for journalism or assassinated – take your pick. #WhatUpKhashoggi! Too soon?

Why Any of This Bring This Up?

I bring this up because yesterday afternoon I came across a press release from Nikolai Murashov, deputy director of the Federal Security Service CTRC, explaining how the FSB is prepared to declassify all correspondence related to the US election hacking campaign of 2016 – if the FSB’s counterparts in the USA don’t object to it, that is. Before breaking this down, you seriously have to understand much of a loaded statement this really is.

For example, between Robert Mueller, the House of Representative, US Senate and God knows how many lobbyists working for or on behalf of different inter-governmental agencies, the United States has quite literally spent two years and hundreds upon hundreds of millions of dollars collectively trying to figure out what the Russians were up to in 2016. Not only this, but despite all of this time, money and effort, not a single one of these investigations has actually concluded yet, been closed or even “solved.” Yet as we site here today, December 12th 2018, the Kremlin is saying that they are fully prepared to publish everything these people/investigators have spent years trying to figure out, entirely for free with no strings attached – lulz.

So Why Ask US Permission?

This is exactly why I say you have to understand how much of a loaded statement the FSB’s announcement this week really was, because indubitably this is just a “Troll.” But despite the hilarity of it all, this may be no joking matter.

Of course Russia is ready to release this information to the international public right now, I mean think about it. Despite however strong the US Oligarchy may be, soon enough someone is eventually going to have to ask or demand Mueller to start wrapping things up already, and even Congress knows they can’t possibly let a 4 year old investigation distract from new/critical talking points headed into the 2020 election season. Within the next year, possibly sooner, everyone working for this Government is going to have start moving on with their lives, stop pouting about being bested by the Russians in 2015/2016 and start closing their investigations. Put a different way, all of these Russian investigations are going to be coming to an end within the next year, more likely that not before the first Presidential debates in December 2019.

You better believe that Russia would love nothing more than to declassify all of their documents relating to the 2016 election hacking campaign right now, because it would completely undermine the results of every US investigation into it. Essentially, who cares what Mueller, Warner and Burr think about what Russia did when you can have the actual intelligence documents/blueprint straight from the source; straight from the Kremlin? Moreover, how hilarious would it be for the Kremlin to spontaneously release all of this material within weeks of the conclusion of all these two year long Federal investigations? It would make the last two years and the hundreds of millions of dollars spent look/seem utterly worthless.

Secondly, the FSB’s announcement this week only puts added pressure on Trump and the US Government. Think about it, what if Donald Trump or someone working in his cabinet actually says “No” to Russia and tells them not to declassify the material? Wouldn’t that make it seem like he was trying to hide something –  or was “colluding” with them if you will to keep something secret? Don’t you think the US press would jump all over that? Do you know how bad the Trump Administration would look if someone representing him actually told Russia not to go through with it? That’s what makes the FSB’s announcement this week such a world class troll, or ingenious depending on how you want to look at it – because so many people are going to get f*cked by it either way, whether Russia decides to publish the documents or not.

But Such Is Informational Warfare – Right?

The even funnier thing about all of this is that Russia has already admitted to trying to undermine or meddle in the 2016 US Presidential election several times throughout the course of the last year and a half – just not necessarily using those exact/specific words.

For example, in February 2017 Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu publicly announced the formation of Russia’s newest military unit, an “Informational Warfare Unit” specifically designed to combat fake news/propaganda against Russia and spread it on their behalf across the global theater. While Shoigu indicated the unit had been active for quite some time before February 2017, the occasion marked the first time the Russian military was willing to admit to its existence. If that’s not enough evidence to sway you, just a few weeks ago the Kremlin officially filed motion in a New York City court room to dismiss charges against 10 Russian operatives charged as being Wikileaks sources for the Hillary Clinton and DNC email hack/leaks.

Read More & Find Official Court Documents Here: https://roguemedia.co/2018/11/19/russian-federation-files-motion-requesting-dnc-clinton-hacking-lawsuits-be-thrown-out-of-court/

In the motion linked above, dated November 18th 2018, the Kremlin specifically demands that their operatives be granted immunity in this case, because hacking Clinton and the DNC were tied to a deliberate military operation – and military actions/operations are granted immunity in individual courtrooms worldwide, regardless of the country perpetrating them. Given that the US has the largest military on Earth and is actively engaged in 7 different War zones right now, perhaps no other country on Earth benefits more from this immunity than the US does. Regardless, in doing so, Russia is directly admitting that the Kremlin ordered the hack of Clinton and the DNC as part of a much broader military campaign/operation in 2016 – they are even willing to testify to this in court!

Given the evidence, I am not quite sure why none of these Federal investigations have concluded or why the US public is last to know, but it is a general fact that Russia has already admitted guilt into election hacking/meddling years ago. Quite frankly, it’s a marvel how the US press organizations operate. This is also why, on through to today, all those millions spent and years lost investigating Russia’s influence is utterly useless. Whether the Russians declassify these documents or not, we already know the truth, we already know Russia was behind all of this. The fact of the matter is that all of these never-ending investigations into Russian meddling are nothing more than wastes of time and money, abusing resources to keep producing news headlines, keep the American public living in fear of Russia while making Donald Trump look as corrupt as possible. In other words, all of these Federal investigations into Russian propaganda are nothing more than “American Propaganda” in their own right – farcical at best.

Sorry if this is the first time you are hearing any of this or you are the last to know. But keep watching CNN, I’m sure they’ll have a breakthrough on any of these investigations any day now 😂

Anonymous Europe – Cyber Guerrilla Leak Files from Clandestine UK Operation “Integrity Initiative”

In news first brought to my attention via Sputnik, one of Russia’s largest news corporations, Anonymous hackers have published documents outlining a large scale clandestine operation undertaken by United Kingdom from 2015 to present entitled the “Integrity Initiative,” designed to create a “secret large-scale information service” across Europe. According to the leak, the operation was carried out under the pretext of countering the “Russian propaganda” and its main objectives were “to provide a coordinated Western response to Russian misinformation and other elements of hybrid warfare.

All said, The Integrity Initiative has an annual operating budget of $2.4 million dollars and is said to consists of groups of local politicians, journalists, military personnel, scientists and academics across over a dozen countries. Working together, the team is dedicated to finding and publishing alleged evidence of Russian interference in European affairs and, at the same time, influencing community policy.

In response to the leak, in statements to Sputnik, Konstantin Kosachov, chairman of the International Affairs Committee of the Council of the Russian Federation said that “The hackers’ information on the actions of the British special services against Russia requires a thorough investigation. The Commission for the Protection of State Sovereignty will analyze the data just published.

Full Leak from Anonymous:

Greetings. We are Anonymous.

We have obtained a large number of documents relating to the activities of the ‘Integrity Initiative’ project that was launched back in the fall of 2015 and funded by the British government. The declared goal of the project is to counteract Russian propaganda and the hybrid warfare of Moscow. Hiding behind benevolent intentions, Britain has in fact created a large-scale information secret service in Europe, the United States and Canada, which consists of representatives of political, military, academic and journalistic communities with the think tank in London at the head of it.

As part of the project Britain has time and again intervened into domestic affairs of independent European states. A most demonstrative example is operation ‘Moncloa’ in Spain. Britain set to prevent Pedro Baños from appointment to the post of Director of Spain’s Department of Homeland Security. It took the Spanish cluster of the Integrity Initiative only a few hours to accomplish the task.


For now, Britain is capable of conducting such operations in the following states:

Spain: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195775/Spain-Cluster

France: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195457/France-Cluster

Germany: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195486/Germany-Cluster

Italy: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195660/Italy-Cluster

Greece: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195527/Greece-Cluster

The Netherlands: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195718/Netherlands-Cluster

Lithuania: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195170/Baltics-Cluster

Norway: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195748/Nordic-Clusters

Serbia and Montenegro: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195208/Central-Eastern-Cluster

London’s near-term plans to create similar clusters include Latvia, Estonia, Portugal, Sweden, Belgium, Canada, Armenia, Ukraine, Moldova, Malta, Czechia, countries of the Middle East and North Africa, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia, Hungary, Cyprus, Austria, Switzerland, Turkey, Finland, Iceland, Denmark, and the USA.


All the work is done under absolute secrecy via concealed contacts in British embassies, which gives rise to more suspicion that Britain uses plausible excuse to create a global system of information influence and political interference into affairs of other countries.

Covert structures for political and financial manipulative activities under control of British secret services are created not only in the EU countries but also on other continents. In point of fact, quiet colonization of both former British neighbors in the EU and NATO allies is taking place.

The government of Great Britain has to come out of the dark and declare straight its intentions and unveil the results of the Integrity Initiative activities! Otherwise, we will do it!

Today, we make public a part of the documents we have available. In case London gives no response to our demands during the following week, we will reveal the rest of the documents that contain many more secrets of the United Kingdom.

Integrity Initiative Handbook: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195560/II-Handbook-v2

Integrity Initiative Guide to Countering Russian Disinformation May 2018: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195802/The-Integrity-Initiative-Guide-to-Countering-Russian-Disinformation-May-2018-v1

Austria Cluster: https://www.scribd.com/document/392194912/Austria-Cluster

Cluster leaders: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195250/Cluster-Leaders

Cluster participants: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195286/Cluster-Participants

UK Cluster: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195849/UK-Cluster

USA and Canada Cluster: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195882/USA-Canada-Cluster

xCountry: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195906/x-Country

xOutreach: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195933/x-Outreach

FCO application form 2017-18: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195350/FCO-Application-Form-2017-18

FCO application form 2018v2: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195390/FCO-Application-Form-2018-v2

FCO proposal Integrity budget 2017-18: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195430/FCO-Proposal-Integrity-Budget-2017-18

Integrity 2018 Activity Budget v3: https://www.scribd.com/document/392195593/Integrity-2018-Activity-Budget-v3

Top 3 deliverables (for FCO): https://www.scribd.com/document/392195825/Top-3-Deliverables-for-FCO

We are Anonymous.

We are Legion.

We do not forgive.

We do not forget.

Expect us.

[pdf-embedder url=”https://roguemedia.co/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/AnonymousEurope_Leak01.pdf”%5D

88% of IT Professionals Believe World Is Currently At Cyber-War

Late last year the United States officially recognized “cyber” as the 5th domain of Warfare, officially joining more traditional venues such as land, air, sea and space. The  move came as a countermeasure to the international declarations of others, including Russia’s announcement of the formation of a new “informational warfare” military unit months beforehand. 2017 and 2018 have also seen many different people, parties and countries around the world take bold new stances in regards to cyber Warfare. This includes the German Armies formation of a new Cyber Command unit, NATO’s re-classification of the internet/cyberspace as a domain of Warfare, the United States attempts to re-classify US-CYBERCOM as a military unit and global leaders calling for the drafting of a new “Digital Geneva Convention” – specifically to draft a new set of internationally recognized rules, guidelines and standards governing informational/cyber warfare into the future.

I bring this up because I have recently come across several studies that I find particularly interesting. The first is a study from Venafi, finding that 86% of American based Informational Technology workers believe that the world is currently at “Cyber War.” Breaking down the study a little further, according to the same research, 88% of those same IT workers believe that attacks which disrupt election infrastructure technically constitute acts of war. This includes things such as attacks against election infrastructure, voting machines and “machines that transmit, store, tabulate and validate electoral data.” Moreover, 86% believe that misinformation campaigns designed to manipulate public opinion for political outcome/gain also constitute acts of cyber war. Interestingly enough, 40% of IT professionals believe that cyber war already has and is actively costing human lives, only 3% of respondents believe that it is impossible for people to die from cyber wars/attacks.

The second study was conducted by researchers at The Military Times, an American based military news outlet. According to a poll of thousands of active Duty military personnel, almost a half of all soldiers and commanders in the US Armed Forces, 46% to be exact, believe that the United States will be drawn into some sort of large-scale armed conflict in 2019 – though they did not specify where or whom with. However, 89% of those same respondents stated that cyber attacks/terrorism represent the single greatest risk to the country at the same moment in time, and 71% state that Russia is the US’s single greatest enemy – up 18% from 2017.

While I am unable to find the study today, I remember covering a poll released by Russia Today during the summer of 2016. In it, around 43% of Russian citizens believe the the United States and Russia are currently at War, and greater than 60% of Russian citizens believe that eventual War with the United States is inevitable – especially given the state of international affairs under President Obama at that moment in time. A different study from 2017 found that 73% of Russian citizens believe the the US is actively engaged in manipulating the science and technology of foreign countries, including Russia. Indubitably, these fields would also cover cyber and cyber-warfare.

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